Shotcrete has been around for 100 years. While the early gunite, or dry-process shotcrete, grew in use and various applications around the world for shotcrete's first 50 years, it was in the second 50 years that great progress was made in three important
The use of shotcrete to build new concrete structures as well as to restore and repair existing structures is well-known and documented. Although this versatile method of placing concrete is widely accepted by the construction industry, shotcrete for ground support in tunnel and mine operations is perhaps less known in the general construction community. Underground shotcreting, however, consumes the largest volume of concrete of all pneumatic applications. Today, nearly all tunnels under construction in North America will use shotcrete as part of their support system. And rather than cast-in-place concrete lining, a shotcreted final tunnel lining, installed after the ground support system is in place, is also practical and gaining acceptance.