How can designers improve the quality, efficiency, and safety of construction operations? In the United Kingdom, greater use of hybrid structures may be the answer. By combining a variety of appropriate structural elements in one building, architects and designers can offer their clients a wide range of solutions to construction problems.
The term tooling refers to several kinds of mechanical fracturing used to achieve a particular visual effect by removing part of the concrete surface. Methods of tooling include abrasive blasting, bushhammering, use of scaling hammers or point tools, and grinding and polishing. The process of producing tooled surfaces commences weeks or even months before the casting operation.