Kevin MacDonald PhD, PE, FACI is the principal engineer with Beton Consulting Engineers in Minnesota. His practice focuses on durability of infrastructure, mass concrete, and production of concrete with high replacement levels. He is a member of several ACI and ASTM committees. He is a licensed professional engineer in Minnesota and Ontario Canada. Contact MacDonald via email.
Modern concrete technology has uncoupled workability with water content through the use of surface active dispersants that interfere with the natural flocculation process of unhydrated cement in water.