Volume changes are dimensional changes of structural members due to shrinkage, creep, and temperature changes. Most concrete shrinkage takes place early in the life of the structure—75% in the first three months and 90% in one year. If the design doesn’t accommodate these influences, volume changes can distress the structure. A typical example of restrained volume changes is a design that creates a short column in a relatively long structure. This often happens in parking decks, especially when sloping ramp geometry results in variable column lengths.

This seminar, Concrete Repair IV: Structural Repairs and Strengthening Techniques, was presented by Predrag “Pete” Popovic at World of Concrete 2012.