With some state contractor licensing laws now more than 30 years old, the idea of state licensing has long been a matter of serious controversy within the construction industry- with proponents generally contending that the laws enforce responsibility on the construction industry, and opponents arguing that the tendency is to make closed corporations out of specified areas. Reaction to the laws and their administration is as varied as the states in which the statutes are effective. In Arizona and California- two of the states with the oldest laws- support both from contractors and labor unions is on the enthusiastic side in a majority of instances. Other generally unqualified votes of confidence come from Michigan, North Carolina, North Dakota, Tennessee, and Utah. Qualified approval comes from Montana and South Carolina with opposition coming from New Mexico and Mississippi.