At the Westminister Dog show in Madison Square Garden there is an event called "the braces" in which a handler simultaneously shows eight dogs, four leashed to each hand, so that the judges can observe the form, movement, grooming, and response of the animals. What does this have to do with concrete? Certainly not very much in any literal sense, but just for fun lets give each of our dogs a name related to concrete. So now our handler faces the challenge of controlling the performances of eight critters having these admittedly somewhat improbable names: Testing, Cement, Air, Temperature, Slump, Coarse Aggregate, Sand, and finally Scales. Let's start out with this little fellow we've called Testing; he probably affects my performance more significantly than any others in one way or another. If I don't maintain tight control to Testing I haven't a prayer for controlling the others. Consider Cement for a moment. We've got to watch this fellow all the time to know how he's going to behave and how strong or weak he may be. Now what about Air? If we're putting down pavements we have to have this fellow around if we want to have durability and resistance to scaling; but we mustn't have too much of him because he can weaken our concrete. Then there's Temperature. This fellow can take off on us and foul up our entire performance. This fellow we call Slump is probably the noisiest one of the bunch and it's my opinion he gets a good deal more attention than he deserves. He doesn't really influence our performance all that much. I've had people give me a prescription for concrete and wonder why on different days the strength tests differently. This is why it happens. Without going beyond the specification, without breaking any rules, we have allowed all our puppies to go the left side of the ring. What's the basic principle? The basic principle is that no matter what you do in life you get a spread. In producing concrete we try to hold these puppies in the middle but they get away from us a little now and then. Standardization is the answer to control.