Very early in the project the following elements should be analyzed so the plans may be properly prepared for effective execution of the architectural concrete work at minimum cost. The first is placing techniques. The architectural finish must be the controlling factor considered in determining the characteristics of the mix. Seldom is an architectural mix pumpable, because pumping places demands on the mix characteristics which may be contradictory to the characteristics of the architectural concrete finish. When the specification state that the concrete mix shall be placed by a bottom drop bucket or other specific means, the contractor cannot assume without question that pumping is an acceptable alternative. The second is the forming system. Architectural concrete requires tighter, better fabricated forms than those used on most structural concrete, but when shop-built forms are required for the architectural concrete there is no reason why these forms must be used for this single purpose. If details for the special forms are considered early and forms delivered early, they can be used for structural concrete as well. The third is the shop drawings. The two sets of shop drawings generally needed-those for forms and reinforcing steel- should be drawn for the purpose of helping contractors perform their work in the best fashion. Form planning should raise questions about fitting the work together, using the forming material most economically, and dealing with potential problems of form stripping. The fourth is work crew. The needs of architectural concrete can influence the staffing of the project. On most very large projects concrete foreman are part of the work crew. As projects become smaller, the capabilities of the concrete placement crew leader frequently tend to diminish. On projects where the superintendent will be unable to spend a great deal of time personally looking after the architectural concrete details, a concrete foreman should be selected on the basis on his experience with architectural concrete.