The construction of concrete highway shoulders is becoming big business. One of the major advantages of using concrete rather than other materials is the wide variety of methods and equipment available to complete a project satisfactorily and economically. The concrete contractor can generally utilize the same equipment and crew that are already on hand for paving traffic lanes. By not having to bring in extra equipment required for placing other types of shoulders, or not having to hire a subcontractor to do the work, he can reduce the cost of a project. In addition to competitive construction costs, concrete shoulders offer several other advantages: with proper jointing and tying, the surface of a shoulder remains flush with that of the pavement, tie bars which hold the concrete shoulder in intimate contact with traffic lanes prevent the wide separations between shoulder and pavement which permit water to penetrate and weaken pavement support, concrete shoulders tied to the concrete pavement reduce pavement edge deflections and stresses and thereby prolong pavement life, and rumble strips and a contrasting texture built into the surface during construction can delineate the edges of traffic lanes. Except on very short projects, concrete shoulders are placed by slipform equipment. This includes curb and gutter pavers which are used for the narrow shoulders on the median side of the pavement. In many cases the larger pavers are placing the wider outside shoulder and the smaller pavers are placing the inside shoulder at the same time, but not necessarily at the same location. Shoulder widths are often 10 on the outside and 4 feet on the inside.