Cast-in-place concrete piles eliminate the need for pile driving machinery which can cause dangerous vibrations and precipitate landslides and which is sometimes too costly for use on small jobs. The first method of cast-in-place piles is with steel cores. The method was developed by the Washington State Highway department because of hairline cracks that were appearing in the area in which the contractor was proceeding to excavate. Because of the instability of the earth, no vibration could be done. To solve this problem, the construction crew drilled holes and then placed steel beams in these. These holes were then backfilled with concrete assuring the stability of the earth. The second method was developed by a British piling company that has introduced a system which uses precast sections for the core of the pile. A hole is bored in the ground to the required depth and lined with a steel casting made up in convenient lengths. The precast sections are then threaded over a central steel tube to form the pile core. Lowering into the borehole continues as each section is added. The steel lining of the borehole is withdrawn and a grout mix pumped in simultaneously through the central hole in the sections. Subsoil water is forced out as the level of the mix rises. The result is a high-strength core grouted together and into the subsoil to form a solid pile encased in a thick skin of concrete firmly keyed to the substratum.