For seventeen years the state of Indiana has been testing concrete pavement versus asphalt pavement and reporting the findings every two years to the State Legislature. From the very start, the results have been eye opening to those who had thought asphalt pavements cost less. The test sections carried identical traffic for eight years. For the last nine years the concrete test section has carried Interstate 65 traffic while the asphalt section carried only the local US 31 traffic into Columbus. This has caused the concrete to carry a total to date of one-third more heavy loads than the asphalt. Despite this difference the concrete has greatly outperformed the asphalt in every respect. For the first nine years the per mile cost of routine maintenance of the asphalt was 361 dollars while the concrete upkeep cost was 39 dollars. Still the asphalt section was so badly worn after eight years of use that it was resurfaced during the ninth year at a cost of 5, 280 dollars per mile. Thus at nine years the asphalt pavement cost 79,768 dollars per mile, 12 percent more than the concrete at 71,292 dollars. Up to that time the traffic had been the same for both. Thereafter I-65 traffic was run over the concrete section but not over the asphalt section, placing more than a third more heavy loads on the concrete. After seventeen years, the total cost per mile for the asphalt is 79,835 dollars, over 8,500 dollars per mile more than the cost of concrete at 71,315 dollars.