So much is made nowadays of the fact that concrete requires little maintenance that pavements are sometimes grossly neglected. Then, too, most of the concrete roads in use today do not have the advantages devised by modern research: such advantages, for example, as air-entrainment, sawed joints, and the employment of vastly improved paving machines and materials. As a result, a considerable amount of pavement in this country becomes in need of resurfacing every year. There has been a regrettable tendency among some engineers to lay a flexible topping and write the road off as a really first-class thoroughfare. This in unfortunate, since in many cases these roadways are still structurally sound and could deliver many more years of safe, smooth driving if they were properly topped or patched. The problem boils down to the need for a simple means of providing a new wearing-riding surface for damaged or worn areas using a little material and manpower as possible. One answer is thin bonded concrete resurfacing. Research has been under way for some time to devise a practical way to top pavements with a thin layer of concrete; but the difficulty of establishing a good bond between the old and new concrete had been a stumbling block. Some work with thin bonded toppings for limited areas, mainly bridge deckings, was successful; but no extensive project has been tackled until a badly scaled section of the Pennsylvania Turnpike was topped using this technique. First, loose and unsound concrete on the base slab is removed with chipping tools or scarifying machines. Afterwards the pavement should be swept clean of debris and dust. Second, all bituminous material should be removed from joints and cracks without the use of solvents. These areas are then cleaned of loose particles with a compressed air gun. Third, sprinkle a detergent on the wetted pavement and hand or power-scrub until all oil drippings, paint and dirt are removed. Flush thoroughly. Fourth, the pavement is then etched with commercial hydrochloric acid. First, the surface is sprinkled with water and then the acid is applied. After foaming has ceased, the slab is rinsed. Etching should not be tackled on windy days. Fifth, an important step in achieving good bond is the grout course. Just before paving is begun a creamy-textured gout is broomed into the surface. If considerable time has elapsed since acid etching, the slab should be brushed clean of dirt. Sixth, once the surface is prepared, the regular paving train takes over. Joints should be carefully made and curing should be thorough.