In certain types of soil it is not uncommon for a small lightly-loaded concrete footing to heave under the action of frost. Although the mix can be excellent and the placing perfect, this heaving can be severe enough to break connections, warp superstructures, and create costly repair bells. Although the action may in no way be the fault of the contractor he is more often than not blamed for the result. Most structures are founded below the depth of maximum frost penetration, and the heaving that occurs is not associated with the soil under the footing. Rather the heaving occurs when the soil on the sides of the footing piers grips the pier. Test have indicated that the bond between the concrete and the frozen soil can be on the order of 400 psi. It is not surprising then that the bearing loads on small footings are not heavy enough to overcome the uplift forces. There are several ways to minimize frost heaving. All of these possibilities have been used with varying degrees of success: eliminating the grip of the frozen soil on the sides of a footing; enlarging the base of the footing; replacing the soil adjacent to the footing with free-draining material; treating the soil with chemical additives; lowering the ground water by drainage; and insulating the ground to prevent frost penetration.