Does vacuum treatment remove enough water from a floor so that it is adequately protected against early frost damage without supplying heat from salamanders or providing other winter protection?
It helps but may not offer enough safety in itself to forego all winter protection. A study of this was made by Hope and Quelch, "Early Freezing of Vacuum Processed Concrete," published in Behavior of Concrete Under Temperature Extremes, American Concrete Institute publication SP-39, pages 23-36. They found that vacuum-processed 6 by 12-inch cylinders cured 6 to 12 hours had good resistance to frost damage as measured by compressive strength. Nonprocessed cylinders required 12 to 24 hours curing to achieve the same degree of protection.