Durable concrete resists weathering, chemical attack, and other types of deterioration. An important factor in concrete durability is concrete quality. Quality concrete has properties that match the application and expected exposure conditions.
Before beginning a project, identify the likely causes of concrete deterioration: abrasion, chemical attack, corrosion of reinforcement, freezing and thawing, reactive aggregates, or scaling. This information will help determine mix materials and quantities, admixtures, compressive strength, air-void system, and other factors needed to produce durable concrete.
Recommendations for the materials and mixes to use, and precautions to take during construction, represent the best practices and reflect recognized consensus code requirements. Common to most of these mix recommendations is the concept that durability is improved when mix proportions are selected to produce concrete that is much more dense, or less permeable to water and harmful chemicals, than conventional mixes.