When planning the reinforcing steel, the detailer in the field must ask himself, "What is it going to look like to the placing and vibrating crew from the top of the forms?" If this crew can look down and see clear space, they will use it and be able to do a good job. If they see a blockage sufficient to prevent free access to place and consolidate the concrete, the chances of the job being effectively accomplished are practically nil. There are a number of helpful considerations for planning the reinforcing steel for constructability, with either architectural or structural concrete. (1) For wall construction, place the horizontal steel on the outside and/or the exposed concrete face side of the vertical steel. (2) The horizontal reinforcing steel in a beam can present severe difficulty, especially at the point of junction of the column and the spandrel beam where vertical steel is tied in with horizontal steel, with the whole thing usually wrapped in ties. Bundling can be one solution. More bars may have to be bent but this is less of a problem than improper placement. (3) Carefully plan the placement of hairpins and stirrups to avoid their restricting the clear space. (4) Splices can create grave problems by increasing the cross section of steel to the point where the concrete cannot move through the steel cage to the form. Although special connections tend to be more expensive than splicing in many cases, they may be essential as a space-saver under these circumstances. (5) Care in the handling of tie wires is an important detail in architectural concrete. Wires that are left close to the finished surface can rust and cause the surface to spall. Tie wires should be cut or bent behind the joint so that the concrete as it is being compacted will not force the ends of the tie wires towards the form. (6) Chairs present a variety of problems. Care must be exercised in the installation to prevent rust. When plastic chairs are used the plastic should match the color of the concrete.