Is it true that compressive strength is a clue to most other concrete properties?
Only in a general way. For example, data from National Bureau of Standards Monograph 74, "Creep and Drying Shrinkage of Lightweight and Normal Weight Concretes," show that for concretes of the same nominal compressive strength there is a wide range in values of creep in compression, drying shrinkage and modulus of elasticity. The factors that give rise to these differences are discussed in the report.