How can damage from high velocity water be reduced? We understand that cavitation occurs where turbulence causes vapor bubbles of very low pressure so that the concrete is torn out.
The best method of improving resistance is to use high strength concrete, possibly cast against an absorbent form liner to reduce the watercement ratio. Cavitation tends to remove the larger particles. Hence aggregate near the surface should not be larger than 3/4 inch. Polymer concretes have shown good resistance, and resilient coatings give some protection by reducing the stress level in the underlying concrete. Such coatings must adhere strongly to the concrete to be effective. Some neoprene and polyurethane coatings have been satisfactory. One of the chief considerations should be to provide smooth, well-aligned surfaces free of abrupt changes in slope or curvature.