Oklahoma Highway Department bridge engineers require the emulsion for curing wet concrete in each bridge they build, whether in summer in the dry west or winter in the humid east. They expect the protection to continue with the emulsion residue acting as an antispalling or antiscaling agent for two years after the concrete cures. Other curing agents, waxes, and resins, plastic sheets and wet burlap, do not stop winter spalling. Both city and state engineers dispense with applying an anti-spalling agent the first and second years after curing with the emulsion. And both city and state engineers emphasize that they use the emulsion under adverse as well as diverse weather conditions. Plastic sheets can blow off. Wet burlap can dry out or freeze. The patented emulsion is a two-phase system containing about equal volumes of linseed oil and water. The oil phase contains 97 percent of boiled linseed oil and 3 percent of saturated tallow alcohols that act as a stabilizer. The water phase contains 99.6 percent of water, .37 percent of sodium hydroxide and .03 percent of dipicolinic acid, a chelating agent. In developing it, Mr. Kubie wanted a material that would remain stable in storage, break or separate when applied to concrete but not reemulsify and wash away, and leave a residue that would hold water but release water vapor from fresh concrete and inhibit salt solutions more than water in penetrating cured concrete. The emulsion has been found to remain stable for more than 2 years and through 5 freeze/thaw cycles. It penetrates wet and cured concrete to a depth of one-eighth to one-fourth of an inch. Questions for continuing research are: does it form a film? Does it form compounds with materials in the concrete? How does it permit water to penetrate cured concrete but inhibit salt solutions?