What effect would salt, salt water or ocean beach sand have on concrete durability?
The effect depends on whether these materials are used as ingredients in concrete or merely come into contact with it. In general, good quality concrete is adequately resistant to the effects of sea water, salt water, salt and salt-bearing materials that come into contact with it externally. If these materials contain large amounts of sulfate, however, it is desirable to make the concrete with Type V cement. The results of longtime tests on concretes exposed to sea water are given in "Twenty-Year Report on the Long-Time Study of Cement Performance in Concrete," by W. C. Hansen and others, Research Department, Bulletin 175, Portland Cement Association, Old Orchard Road, Skokie, Illinois, 60076. This is a 36-page publication. It is better to make concrete out of fresh water and washed sand than salt water and salty sand, although concrete has been made successfully with sea water and salt-bearing ingredients. One article on this subject is "Good Concrete Made with Coral and Sea Water; 1. Coral for Aggregate," by D. Lee Narver, Civil Engineering, Vol. 24, No. 10, pages 40-44 (1954).