Whether designing a full or partial basement, problems involving access, daylighting and ventilation must receive careful attention in the design of a modern basement. A direct outside entrance increases the usefulness of a basement for garden tool storage as well as providing a clean-up are for children and service workers before they enter the house proper. The direct entrance also means that the location of the interior stairway (first floor to basement) is not restricted by service needs and can therefore be placed to give convenient access to recreation rooms. For houses on steeply sloping lots, an exterior basement entrance is easily provided simply by adopting a design in which a section of the basement wall is above grade and the basement floor is at ground level. When an outside stairway is necessary, an attempt should be made to locate it under cover of the garage, breezeway or porch so that it is protected from ice, snow and rain. If this cannot be done, a covered areaway type of entrance should be provided. Obviously, there will also be occasions when, for some reason or other, a direct entrance to the basement is not possible. It is then best to try to combine a rear grade-level entrance to the house proper with the access to the basement. For such a design the entrance door is usually slightly above grade and opens onto the landing of an interior stairway. From here, one can go either down into the basement or step up in to the house. Basements should have plenty of natural lighting. In fact one of the biggest faults with most basements is that the windows are too small and there are almost never enough of them. Windows should open to give good ventilation and they should provide a large area of glass positioned to give the occupants an unobstructed view. A window below grade in a small areaway creates a dungeon effect and is next to useless. The best way of obtaining large window areas is by proper location of the house to exploit the topography of the lots and by well-planned grading. Good access and good lighting are the design essentials in a well-built basement. There are a great many other features and frills that can be included to see, glamorize and emphasize the with basement home, but without proper light and access their value will be very much diminished.