Equipment and methods for concrete forming have undergone a rapid improvement during the past ten years. Probably the single most important factor for this advancement has been the development and acceptance of prefabricated forming systems of panels, fillers and accessories, which have reduced the two biggest problems- material and labor costs. These systems are adaptable to all types of work: heavy and light construction. However, in this article, discussion will be based on residential and low wall forming, although many of the same methods and much of the same equipment apply to all types of work. The majority of today's forming systems consist of forms made up of a combination of steel and plywood. These offer a high reuse value because the plywood can be reversed at any time. With a complete forming system, a contractor can plan his forming schedule like a production line, elimination unnecessary, time-consuming labor and guesswork. Before actual erection starts, it is best to prepare a form layout, indication the quantity of pieces required and where panels, fillers, inside and outside corners will be used. A number of factors such as stroage, waling, bracing and brick ledges will probably determine which side of the formwork to erect first. The normal procedure, if outside forms are erected, is to start at a cormer. Since most ststems have similar panels, fillers and corners, the procedure is much the same: the corner and first filler/panel is set, plumbed and braced. From here on, panels can ve set fast and accurately. Normally, ties are placed as the first side is erected, strating at htejoint between the corner forms an d adjacent forms. When one side is complete, door or window bucks, box-outs or brick ledges should be located. As the opposing forms are set, care should be taken that form joints line up for proper tie connection. Stripping usually can be accomplished the next day.