We are concerned with the problem of bulging forms and the danger of breakouts when forms are not strong enough. This makes us wonder why wales are used on only one side with some form systems.
Usually wales are not intended to add to the structural capacity of the forms. They are used mainly to align the forms horizontally. For this reason it is often adequate to use them on one side of the wall only. Design tables for formwork are provided in the ACI book, "Formwork for Concrete." This is available from Concrete Construction Publications, Box 555, Elmhurst, Illinois 60126 for $18.50.