Concrete Durability

Fig. 1 - The change in cement strengths with time.

Fig. 2 - Concrete with modern cement regressed after 10 years.

Fig. 3. - The great change in Type II cements and the resulting cracking.

Fig. 4 - The coarse-ground cement met the “1.05” criteria.

Fig. 5 - The chemical shrinkage of Class 32.5 cement met the “1.05” criteria.

Fig. 6 - The “1.05” criteria was met by the good crack-resistant cements of 1942.

Fig. 7 - Comparison of American and European portland cements.

Six photographs of concrete with “bad” cement and one photograph of “good” cement ("Perfect 1927 bridge in Lafayette, CO") present a sharp contrast between slow-hydrating and fast-hydrating portland cement.

Six photographs of concrete with “bad” cement and one photograph of “good” cement ("Perfect 1927 bridge in Lafayette, CO") present a sharp contrast between slow-hydrating and fast-hydrating portland cement.

Six photographs of concrete with “bad” cement and one photograph of “good” cement ("Perfect 1927 bridge in Lafayette, CO") present a sharp contrast between slow-hydrating and fast-hydrating portland cement.

Six photographs of concrete with “bad” cement and one photograph of “good” cement ("Perfect 1927 bridge in Lafayette, CO") present a sharp contrast between slow-hydrating and fast-hydrating portland cement.

Six photographs of concrete with “bad” cement and one photograph of “good” cement ("Perfect 1927 bridge in Lafayette, CO") present a sharp contrast between slow-hydrating and fast-hydrating portland cement.

Six photographs of concrete with “bad” cement and one photograph of “good” cement ("Perfect 1927 bridge in Lafayette, CO") present a sharp contrast between slow-hydrating and fast-hydrating portland cement.

Six photographs of concrete with “bad” cement and one photograph of “good” cement ("Perfect 1927 bridge in Lafayette, CO") present a sharp contrast between slow-hydrating and fast-hydrating portland cement.

The cracking at Denver International Airport was caused by hyperactive Type II cements with 7-day strengths as high as 5477 psi. The cracking is not prevented by fly ash additions or by night placement.

The cracking at Denver International Airport was caused by hyperactive Type II cements with 7-day strengths as high as 5477 psi. The cracking is not prevented by fly ash additions or by night placement.

The cracking at Denver International Airport was caused by hyperactive Type II cements with 7-day strengths as high as 5477 psi. The cracking is not prevented by fly ash additions or by night placement.

Graph X - Futile efforts to stop the upward trend and the upper limits proposed by Frohnsdorff, Long and Benjamin, and Burrows.

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