Formwork failures can occur on a small wall or a high-rise building. Failures in high-rise work usually result in the most injuries and deaths. This is true, logically, because men are either on the deck or below it and have neither the time to move nor a place to which they can move. Almost all failures occur at the time when concrete placement adds considerable weight and pressure on the formwork. On normal wall forming, a "breakout" is common failure and it can occur on any height wall at any time. Some of the major causes of breakouts are: (1) missing hardware- in order to speed up the job as forms are erected, only enough hardware is connected to hold the form to place. As they follow up, workmen may overload a location or two, or prior hardware may loosen and weaken the total connection at a joint. (2) Improperly connected hardware- although most systems are fairly similar, some use attached hardware while others do not. This can be a problem, for while it appears the hardware and tie are connected, they may not be. (3) Tie ends not secured in place- in some systems, the tie end or loop is between the forms and the connecting hardware can miss the loop of the tie. This leaves the tie loose and the formwork unsecured. (4) Placing too fast- all ties are designed for a safe working load and the manufacturers of ties will recommend the rate of placing under various conditions. (5) Damaged ties left in place- ties damaged during shipping or erection should be replaced. (6) Improper tying- the use of the wrong size tie or the use of ties in a manner for which they were not intended can cause trouble. (7) Insufficient tying- careful planning and control means that the correct number of ties will be used, both vertically and horizontally. (8) Vibration- the proper vibrator should be selected for different types of work, to avoid over-vibration or an increase in temporary pressure on the forms and ties. (9) Inadequate waling and strongbacking- depending upon the formwork system used, walers and strongbacks may be used for alignment, structural strength and tying. (10) Inadequate bracing- bracing usually begins with the plumbing and aligning of the formwork. For high walls, braces can be spliced or cables and trusses used.