Consideration of formwork normally begins when the contractor starts estimating a job for bidding but it is better for it to start in the design stage. The specifications have to spell out exactly what is expected so that the contractor can see what latitude there is for economy. Lack of clarity may cause the contractor to guard against unforeseen problems by overbidding or, at the other extreme, to underbid because it is assumed that no problems will arise. In either circumstance the economies offered with any formwork system can be affected greatly. The following suggestions should be considered in the design stage: try to work out the structural and architectural drawings or design at the same time, keeping in mind the kind of forming equipment available; try to take advantage of form reuse by standardizing on single sets of dimensions for columns, beams and walls; use the same spacing between structural members to maximize reuse and eliminate cutting and fitting of forms; provide adequate working room for form erection and stripping; and make certain that formwork can be moved by allowing room for mechanical assistance and not making areas inaccessible to material handling equipment. Next the actual forming materials must be considered and their bearing on economical construction. Following are some considerations to be used in selecting the formwork system: location of the job; availability and type of material handling equipment needed; size of modular units; number of pieces of hardware and miscellaneous items to handle; deflection permissible, if specified; number of concrete placements and likely amount of reuse; reshoring; and safety.