Moscow's new 1750 foot high TV tower is the world's tallest free standing structure. Its design and construction include many unusual features. The foundation penetrates less than 15 feet into a hard rock crust, 98 feet deep, overlying waterlogged sands. A low center of gravity, at roughly the 200 foot level, ensures stability without deep foundations or bracing cables. The foundation consists of a reinforced concrete ring, 26 feet wide, 14 feet deep and 213 feet in diameter. The lowest conical part of the tower has a diameter of 206 feet at the bottom and tapers to 59 feet at the 13th floor. The base is formed into 10 legs through which 150 post-tensioning cables are anchored into the foundation. The water tower and chimney in Belfast was inspired by the need to provide both a high chimney and a water tower for a new boiler house for a hospital. The designers made an unusual decision to combine the two. The resulting structure has an overall height of 107 feet. Its foundation is of octagonal shape with a minimum width of 30 feet. The stem, which forms the chimney, has an external diameter of 7 feet with 6 inch thick walls. The tulip shaped tank has a maximum depth of 51 feet; width at the widest point is 33 feet. The water tower in Milan is remarkable because it uses precast sections as permanent formwork. Overall height is 223 feet; capacity is just over half a million US gallons. The shaft is 148 feet high, 26 feet in diameter and has a wall thickness between 20 and 24 inches. The exterior surface was assembled from rings of twenty curved precast panels bolted and doweled together. Each panel is approximately 9 feet high, 4 feet wide and one and three-eighths of an inch thick. Internal formwork was conventional lumber. Stockholm's 530 foot high communications tower is the highest structure in Scandinavia. It comprises a three story high building supporting 34 tower stories which include 7 balconies. The tower concrete was placed with slip forms. Formwork for the uppermost balcony was built on the roof or the building and then hoisted into position. After placing, it was lowered for reuse on the next lowest balcony until all seven were completed.