Proper planning of pump locations, concrete supply, pipeline layout, placing sequence, and the entire pumping operation will result in savings of time and expense. Pumps should be positioned as close as possible to the forms or area to be concreted last. There should be ample room around each pump hopper to receive concrete from two trucks simultaneously. Pipeline length is usually thought of as a fixed requirement for each job but careful planning will usually reveal ways it can be varied. The convenience of easy access for truck mixers must be weighed against the desirability of positioning the pump close to the forms to achieve shorter pumping distance. When a job is encountered which seems to require too great a pumping distance, consideration should be given to the possibility of relay or stage pumping in height the first pump system discharges into the hopper of a second pump. Two relatively short pumping systems, each operating at optimum line pressures, will perform more dependably than a singly system that is too long the operating at excessive line pressures. The most efficient layout for a pipe line is one the to provides the straightest possible path between the pump and the discharge area while keeping bends to a minimum. When bends are unavoidable they should be chosen to give the smoothest flow. Accordingly, large radius bends are more suitable than small ones. The desired pumping rate is usually determined independently of the other variables that affect pump performance. Generally, a contractor is interested in moving concrete into the forms as rapidly as job conditions and crew size permit. Thus the contractor should begin planning the pumping system by first determining the desired minimum average hourly rate of placing concrete. The pumping rate depends on the velocity at which concrete moves through a pipeline. However, the faster the velocity the greater the line pressure that is required.