Many, or perhaps most, companies who diamond polish concrete use silicate hardening products to help them produce better looking surfaces. Several generic materials may be used for this purpose: sodium, potassium, and lithium silicates, and magnesium fluorosilicates. In addition, a number of proprietary silicate/siliconates are being sold. Manufacturers may add wetting agents and other substances (including acid) to their silicate products.
No matter which product you use, they all have one thing in common: They chemically react with calcium hydroxide (also referred to as "portlandite") to produce calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H), the same material that results from the reaction between portland cement and water, giving concrete much of its strength.