In many arid areas, blowing sand works in between the base of the rails and the usual wooden ties and causes increased maintenance. In the test now under way a rubber pad is inserted between the concrete tie and the base of the rail to exclude the sand but retain required resilience. Success of the prestressed concrete crosstie is based to a large degree on the proper functioning of the system used for fastening the rail the tie. Not only is the system required to keep the rail in place and maintain gauge, but it must also resist railcreep. At the same time, fasteners must be resilient enough to absorb impact forces imposed by the passage of rail traffic. Three fasteners on this project have clips that are fastened with bolts screwed in the threaded stainless steel insets tow and three-fourths inches long embedded in the concrete . Plastic plugs are used to protect the inserts before the tie is put into service.