Permanent ice skating rinks are becoming more and more popular with sports minded Americans and are being ordered by park districts to provide year round skating facilities for urban areas, as well as by public stadiums where ice skating shows and ice hockey provide amusement for thousands of people who never skate themselves. Probably the most important item that must be considered in constructing an ice rink is the brine piping. Rink designers realize that once the pipe runs are buried in concrete, it is costly to rip up the concrete floor and replace corroded, leaking sections. There are two general types of rink floors- the open and the closed or permanent type. The open rink is usually built outdoors and is used only for ice skating. It is constructed, by placing the refrigerant piping on creosoted wooden sleppers. A bed of sand is provided beneath the brine piping. The ice surface is then formed on that layer. For a closed rink, this may be constructed on either an existing sub-floor or a bed of sand topped with a waterproof membrane. The piping is completely embedded in the concrete, with approximately 1 1/4 inches of concrete both above and below the piping. The need for insulation will depend upon whether or not the floor is to be constantly maintained. If the ice is to be removed and restored at frequent interval or is to be maintained during the summer months, the use of insulation is advisable and a level sub-floor upon which it can be laid should be constructed.